Barley is an essential kind of grain especially used as malt and feed stuff. For decades, barley was used to be a prehistorical and economically powerful product. In frame with world-wide grain production capacity, barley is in fourth place along after corn, wheat and rice. And in Turkey, barley is in the second place, coming right after wheat. Throughout the world today, 65% of barley is used for animal feeding, 33% as malt beer, whiskey and biodiesel additive and the rest of 2% is available as human’s food additive in food industry. Whereas in Turkey, 90% is used in animal feeding, and the rest of it is in beer industry in malting. Barley in animal feeding needs to be rich in protein. If husk ratio of barley is high, that diminishes nutritive value in negative-wise. It means, protein-rich and husk-poor six-row barley is appropriate with animal feeding production. Thus, malting barley should have low protein (at around 9 – 10,5%). For production of beer malt, two-row white barley must be used.

Barley is potentially valuable for molecular studies due to being a one year-product and having seven-pair cromozom in its genom. Besides, barley has also variety of physiological, morphological and genetic properties together with a strong genetic heritage and self-pollination capabilities as well.